Researching
World War II

Unit Histories, Documents
Monographs, Books and Reports on CD
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This grouping of information is for the World War 2 Researcher or Family Member
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3nd Infantry
Division

"Blue and White Devils"



7th Infantry
"Cottonbalers"
Regiment

History



15th Infantry
"Old China Hands"
Regiment

History



30th Infantry

Regiment

History

Order of Battle

HQ, 3rd Division
Headquarters & Military Police Company

7th Infantry Regiment
15th Infantry Regiment
30th Infantry Regiment

10th Engineer Battalion
3rd Medical Battalion
3rd Quartermaster Battalion
3rd Reconnaissance Troop
3rd Signal Company
3rd Military Police Platoon

HHB, 3rd Division Artillery
9th Field Artillery Battalion (155 mm)
10th Field Artillery Battalion (105 mm)
39th Field Artillery Battalion (105 mm)
41st Field Artillery Battalion (105 mm)
3rd Antitank Battalion (Provisional)



Attachments
441st AntiAircraft Artillery Battalion - 13 Jul 44 to 29 Jun 45
601st Tank Destroyer Battalion - 13 Jul 44 to 1 Jul 45
756th Tank Battalion - 13 Jul 44 to 1 Jul 1945


Casualties
4,922 Killed in Action
18,766 Wounded in Action
636 Died of Wounds


Commanders
MG Charles F. Thompson
Jul 40 - Aug 41
BG Charles P. Hall
Aug 41 - Sep 41
MG John P. Lucas
Sep 41 - Mar 42
MG Jonathan W. Anderson
Mar 42 - Mar 43
MG Lucian K. Truscott, Jr.
Mar 43 - Feb 44
MG John W. O'Daniel
Feb 44 - Dec 45
MG William R. Schmidt
Jul 45 - Aug 46


Campaigns
Algeria-French Morocco
8 - 11 Nov 42
Tunisia
17 Nov 42 - 13 May 43
Sicily
9 July - 17 Aug 43
Naples-Foggia
9 Sep 43 - 21 Jan 44
Anzio
22 Jan - 24 May 44
Rome-Arno
22 Jan - 9 Sep 44
Southern France
15 Aug - 14 Sep44
Rhineland
15 Sep 44 - 21 Mar 45
Ardennes-Alsace
16 Dec 44 - 25 Jan 45
Central Europe
22 Mar - 11 May 45



Medals
Distinguished Unit Citations
11
Medal of Honor
35
Distinguished Service Cross
109
Distinguished Service Medal
6
Silver Star
4,817
Legionaires Medal
50
Soldiers Medal
172
Bronze Star Medal
8,137
AM
72




1939
 
19 Nov-
The 1st Division started preparing for World War II by moving to Fort Benning, Georgia and ran its personnel through the Infantry School.
1940
 
11 May-
The 1st Division moved to the Sabine Parish, Louisiana area on to participate in the Louisiana Maneuvers.
5 Jun-
The 1st Division returned to Fort Hamilton.
1941
 
4 Feb-
The 1st Division returned to Fort Devens, Massachusetts.
Oct-
The Division was sent to both the Carolina Maneuvres of October and November 1941 then moved to Samarcand, North Carolina.
6 Dec-
The 1st Division returned to Fort Devens, Massachusetts.
1942
 
21 Feb-
The 1st Division transferred to Camp Blanding, Florida.
15 May-
The 1st Division was re-designated 1st Infantry Division.
22 May-
The 1st Division moved then to Fort Benning, Georgia.
21 Jun-
The 1st Division moved Indian Town Gap Mil Reservation.
1 Aug-
The Division departed New York Port of Embarkation.
7 Aug-
The Division arrived in England.
2 Nov-
The Division left for North Africa.
8 Nov-
The Division landed in Oran, Algeria on as part of Operation Torch.
1943
 
21 Jan-
Elements then took part in combat at Maktar, Tebourba, Medjez el Bab, Kasserine Pass, Gafsa, El Guettar, Béja, and Mateur, helping secure Tunisia to 9 May.
Jul-
The Division took part in Operation Husky in Sicily under the command of Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen. It was assigned to the II Corps. It was in Sicily that the 1st saw heavy action when making amphibious landings on Gela, the most fortified German beach head positions. The 1st then moved up through the center of Sicily, slogging it out through the mountains along with the 45th Infantry Division. In these mountains, the division saw some of the heaviest fighting in the entire Sicilian campaign at Troina; some units losing more than half their strength in assaulting the mountain town.
7 Aug-
The Division command was assumed by Major General Clarence R. Huebner. When that campaign was over, the division returned to England to prepare for the Normandy invasion. It was one of the two divisions that stormed Omaha Beach on D-Day, with some of the division's units suffering 30 percent casualties in the first hour of the assault, and secured Formigny and Caumont in the beachhead by the end of the day.
1944
 
27 Jul-
The Division followed up the St. Lo break-through with an attack on Marigny.
Sep-
The Division drove across France in a continuous offensive, reaching the German border at Aachen in September.
21 Oct-
The Division laid siege to Aachen, taking the city after a direct assault.
7 Dec-
The Division attacked east of Aachen through Hurtgen Forest, driving to the Roer, and moved to a rest area for its first real rest in 6 months' combat.
16 Dec-
The Wacht Am Rhein offensive (commonly called the Battle of the Bulge) suddenly broke loose.
17 Dec-
The Division raced to the Ardennes, fighting continuously to help blunt and turn back the German offensive to 28 Jan 45.
1945
 
23 Feb-
The Division attacked and again breached the Siegfried Line, fought across the Roer and drove on to the Rhine.
15 Mar-
The Division crossed at the Remagen bridgehead. The division broke out of the bridgehead, took part in the encirclement of the Ruhr Pocket, captured Paderborn, pushed through the Harz Mountaiins, and was in Czechoslovakia, fighting at Kinsperk, Sangerberg, and Mnichov when the war in Europe ended. Sixteen members of the division were awarded the Medal of Honor.



3rd Infantry Division
in World War II

CD 1
Open all files from the folders on the CDs
Install Adobe Acrobat PDF Reader from CD 1

The files below are found on CD 1


12 Dec 42

Report of Operations
in North Africa



CD 1
78 Pages - PDF


10 - 18 Jul 43

3rd Infantry Division

Participation in the
Sicilian Operation

CD 1
65 Pages - PDF


7 - 15 Oct 43

3rd Infantry Division

First Volturno
River Crossing

CD 1
20 Pages - PDF


12 Oct 43

3rd Infantry Division

First Volturno
River Crossing

CD 1
24 Pages - PDF


22 Jan 44

3rd Infantry Division

At The Battle of
Anzio-Nettuno


CD 1
187 Pages - PDF


22 Jan 44

Anzio
German Study




CD 1
167 Pages - PDF


1 Feb - 1 Apr 44

Infantry
Defending Anzio




CD 1
38 Pages - PDF


20 - 27 Nov 44

3rd Infantry Division

Meurth River Crossing
Vosges Mountains
Breakout

CD 1
37 Pages - PDF


23 Jan 45

3rd Infantry Division

7th Infantry Regiment
Ostheim - Alsace

CD 1
44 Pages - PDF


Watch on the Rhine

1961
Memorial Rhine



CD 1
6 Pages - PDF




Distinguished
Unit Citations

CD 1
6 Pages - PDF


Medal of
Honor Citations





CD 1
37 Pages - PDF


Chart

Organization
USArmy Regiment


CD 1
1 Page - PDF


17 Nov 42 - 13 May 43

Tunisia
Campaign


CD 1
32 Pages - PDF


6 Oct - 15 Nov 43

From
the Volturno
to the Winter Line

CD 1
117 Pages - PDF


Sep 43 - Jun 44

Road To Rome



CD 1
67 Pages - PDF


9 Sep 43 - 21 Jan 44

Naples-Foggia





CD 1
32 Pages - PDF


Sep 43 - May 44

Salerno
To Cassino

First Eight Months
of Italian Campaign

CD 1
32 Pages - PDF


22 Jan - 25 May 44

Anzio
Beachhead




CD 1
159 Pages - PDF


22 Jan - 24 May 44

Anzio Campaign





CD 1
38 Pages - PDF


22 Jan - 9 Sep 44

Rome-Arno
Campaign

CD 1
32 Pages - PDF


15 Aug - 14 Sep 44

Southern France
Campaign

CD 1
32 Pages - PDF


Aug 44 - Mar 45

Rivera To Rhine


CD 1
630 Pages - PDF


15 Sep 44 - 21 Mar 45

Rhineland Campaign


CD 1
36 Pages - PDF


16 Dec 44 - 25 Jan 45

Ardennes-Alsace


CD 1
56 Pages - PDF


Jan 45

The
Last Offensive

CD 1
555 Pages - PDF


Sep 43 - May 45

Cassino
To The Alps

CD 1
690 Pages - PDF


World War II
Situation Maps
Europe


CD 1
83 Pages - PDF
The files below are found on CD 2


8 Nov - 11 Nov 42

Algeria-French
Morocco

CD 2
32 Pages - PDF


Jul 43

Sicily and the
Surrender of Italy

CD 2
630 Pages - PDF


9 Jul - 17 Aug 43

Sicily Campaign


CD 2
28 Pages - PDF


6 Jun - 1 Jul 44

Cross-Channel Attack


CD 2
538 Pages - PDF


1 Jul - 11 Sep 44

Breakout
and Pursuit

CD 2
771 Pages - PDF


25 Jul - 14 Sep 44

Northern France


CD 2
32 Pages - PDF


15 Sep 44 - 21 Mar 45

Rhineland


CD 2
36 Pages - PDF


22 Mar - 11 May 45

Central Europe


CD 2
36 Pages - PDF


Long Road
To Victory



CD 2
20 Pages - PDF


US Air Force
Combat Chronology
1941-45


CD 2
743 Pages - PDF


"Fighting Divisions"

Army
Divisions History

CD 2
241 Pages - PDF


Supreme Command

European
Theater Operations

CD 2
631 Pages - PDF


Brief History
of World War II





CD 2
55 Pages - PDF


APOs

Army Postal Service
Addresses

Alphabetical Listings

CD 2
149 Pages - PDF


Form SF180
Records Request

Request for
Personnel Records


CD 2
3 Pages - PDF


Research Guide

National Archives
Finding Information of
Personal Participation
in World War II Guide

CD 2
5 Pages - PDF


Mines - Booby Traps
Identification Guide

CD 2
42 Pages - PDF


Aircraft
Nose Art

CD 2
34 Pages - PDF


Aircraft
Recognition Guide

CD 2
17 Pages - PDF



Aircraft
Insignia Poster

CD 2
1 Page - PDF



US
World War II
Posters

CD 2
250 Pages - PDF



German
World War II
Posters

CD 2
75 Pages - PDF



Rank
Insignia of Grade


CD 2
1 Page - PDF


Patch
Identification
Guide

CD 2
19 Pages - PDF


Chart

Enlisted Men's
Uniform Insignias


CD 2
1 Page - PDF


Song Lyrics

Army
HIT KIT
of Popular Songs

CD 2
6 Pages - PDF


VE Day
Eisenhower Flyer



CD 2
1 Page - PDF


Comic Book
Covers



CD 2
8 Pages - PDF
The files below are found on CD 3


Music

"Singing Soldiers"

Winners Second
All Army Soldier
Singing Contest

1954-55
19 Song LP Record
2 Album Set

CD 3
Info - PDF
Files - Folder


Music

What Do You
Do In The Infantry ?

American Military March
Semper Fidelis (Marines)






CD 3
Files - Folder


Radio

DDay
Radio Broadcasts
~
13 - BBC/CBS/NBC
Normandy Invasion
Broadcasts
~
24 - CBS Invasion
1 Hour Broadcasts


CD 3
Files - Folder



Cartoons

11
BANNED
World War II
Cartoons

Popeye
Superman
Donald Duck
Bugs Bunny
more ...

CD 3
Info - PDF



3rd Infantry
Division

"Blue and White Devils"

3rd Infantry Division History

Redesignated 1 August 1942, the 3rd Division is the only American Division which fought the Axis on all European fronts.

The Division first saw action in the North African invasion, landing at Fedala, November 8, 1942, and capturing half of French Morocco.

On July 10, 1943, the Division made an assault landing on Sicily, fought its way into Palermo before the armor could get there, and raced on to capture Messina, thus ending the Sicilian campaign.

Nine days after the Italian invasion, September 18, 1943, the 3d landed at Salerno and in intensive action drove to and across the Volturno and to Cassino. After a brief rest, the Division was ordered to hit the beaches at Anzio, January 22, 1944, where for four months it maintained its toe-hold against furious German counterattacks. On February 29, 1944, the 3d fought off an attack by three German Divisions. In May the Division broke out of the beachhead and drove on to Rome, and then went into training for the invasion of Southern France.

On August 15, 1944, another D-day, the Division landed at St. Tropez, advanced up the Rhone Valley, through the Vosges Mountains, and reached the Rhine at Strasbourg, November 26 - November 27, 1944. After maintaining defensive positions it took part in clearing the Colmar Pocket, 23 January 18 February 1945, and on 15 March struck against Siegfried Line positions south of Zweibrucken. The Division smashed through the defenses and crossed the Rhine, March 26, 1945 ; then drove on to take Nurnberg in a fierce battle, capturing the city in block-by-block fighting, 17-20 April. The 3d pushed on to take Augsburg and Munich, 27-30 April, and was in the vicinity of Salzburg when the war in Europe ended.


7th Infantry
"Cottonbalers"
Regiment
7th Infantry Regiment History
1941
- Stationed at Vancouver Barracks, Wash.
- 7 Feb - Moved to Ft. Lewis, Wash.
1942
--
4 May - Transferred to Ft. Ord, Ca.
- 17 Sep - Transferred to Camp Pickett Va.
- 27 Oct - Departed Hampton Roads, Va. P/E.
-- 8 Nov - Assaulted Fedala, North Africa.
1943
- 10 Jul - Assaulted Licata, Sicily.
- 18 Sep - Landed in Italy.
1944
- 22 Jan - Assaulted Anzio, Italy.
- 15 Aug - Assaulted southern France.
1945
- 13 Mar - Entered Germany.
-- 5 May - Entered Austria.
1946
- -4 Sep - Arriverd New York P/E.
- -8 Sep - Moved to Camp Cambell, Ky.

During World War II, the regiment fought German forces on three fronts, North Africa, Italy, and Northwest Europe. It conducted four amphibious landings against beach defenses earning a spearhead device on the streamers awarded for these battles.

In 1942, the regiment conducted an amphibious landing in Morocco. In July 1943, the regiment made an amphibious assault on Sicily. In 1944, it landed at Anzio, conducted a breakout and drove towards Rome. In August 1944, the regiment landed again, this time in Southern France as part of Operation Dragoon, advancing up the Rhone River to the German frontier.

After fighting in the Vosges and in the Alsace at the Colmar Pocket the 7th crossed the Rhine into Germany. Taking part in the seizure of Munich it headed for Austria, reaching the Salzburg area in the waning days of the war. Under the command of Colonel John A. Heintges elements of the regiment serving under the 3rd Infantry Division had the honor of capturing Hitler's retreat at Berchtesgaden.

According to an article written by the staff at HistoryNet it is quite probably no other regiment in the U.S. Army in World War II exceeded the 7th in combat time.


15th Infantry
"Old China Hands"
Regiment
15th Infantry Regiment History
1940
- 12 Jan - Stationed at Ft. Lewis, Wash.
- 22 Jan - Sent to Ft. Ord, Ca.
- 19 May - Returned to Ft. Lewis, Wash.
1942
- May - Returned to Ft. Ord, Ca.
- 16 - Sep - Transferred to Camp Pickett, Va.
- 27 Oct - Departed Hampton Roads P/E.
- -8 Nov - Assaulted Fedala, North Africa.
1943
- 10 Jul - Assaulted Licata, Sicily.
- 18 Sep - Landed in Italy.
1944
- 22 Jan - Assaulted Anzio, Italy.
- 15 Aug - Assaulted southern France.
1945
- 13 Mar - Entered Germany.
- -5 May - Entered Austria.
1946
- -4 Sep - Arriverd New York P/E.
- -8 Sep - Moved to Camp Cambell, Ky.

On 12 January 1940, the regiment was assigned to the 3d Infantry Division. LTC Dwight D. Eisenhower served in the 15th from March to November 1940, as commander of 1st Battalion.

On 24 October 1942, the 15th Infantry and the 3d Infantry Division sailed from Norfolk, Virginia, bound for French Morocco. For the next 31 months, the regiment fought with absolute distinction through French North Africa, Sicily, Italy, France, and Germany.

By 9 May 1945, the 15th Infantry had 16 recipients of the Congressional Medal of Honor, including Audie Murphy who was the most decorated soldier in US Army history and who commanded Company B of the 15th. World War II casualties included 1,633 killed, 5,812 wounded, and 419 missing in action.


30th Infantry
Regiment
30th Infantry Regiment History
1940
- Stationed at Presidio San Francisco, Ca.
- 12 Jan - Sent to Ft. Ord, Ca.
- 15 May - Returned to Presidio San Francisco, Ca.
1941
- 31 Mar - Relocated to Ft. Lewis, Wash.
1942
- 2 May - Returned to Ft. Ord, Ca.
- 21 Sep - Arrived Camp Pickett, Va.
- 27 Oct - Departed Hampton Roads P/E.
--
8 Nov - Assaulted Fedala, North Africa.
1943
- 10 Jul - Assaulted Licata, Sicily.
- 18 Sep - Landed in Italy.
1944
- 22 Jan - Assaulted Anzio, Italy.
- 15 Aug - Assaulted southern France.
1945
- 13 Mar - Entered Germany.
- 5 May - Entered Austria.
1946
- -4 Sep - Arriverd New York P/E.
- 8 Sep - Moved to Camp Cambell, Ky.

At the start of World War II in late 1941, the Regiment moved to Fort Ord, California, where they practiced amphibious tactics for the battles in North Africa. The 30th took part in Operation Torch, the liberation of French Northern Africa, and helped liberate the city of Casablanca. The 30th stayed near Tunisia until 1943, during which they prepared for the invasion of Sicily.

In July 1943, the 30th Infantry and US 3rd Infantry Division was designated as "Joss Force" for the Invasion of Sicily (Operation Husky).

On July 10, 1943 the US 3rd Infantry Division moved on shore captured and secured the City of Licata. Within two days of landing they had captured and secured the City of Agrigento.

Four days later, the US 3rd Infantry Division captured the City of Palermo, traversing 100 miles of the roughest terrain on Sicily. They arrived in Palermo on 16 July 1943. The 30th moved into the lead for the US 3rd Infantry Division, moving eastward toward the city of Messina.

During the Battle of San Agata, General Patton specifically chose the 2nd Battalion, 30th Infantry to move to the right flank of the 29th Panzer Grenadier Division. The objective was for the 2nd Battalion, 30th Infantry Regiment to make a sea-borne landing at Brolo and cut off the 29th Panzer Grenadier Division from escaping Messina. The 2nd Battalion failed in their first attempt to cut the 29th off. However, General Patton ordered the battalion to re-engage the enemy.

The second time, the battalion successfully maneuvered around the 29th Division. The 2nd Battalion, 30th Infantry successfully engaged an entire division for as long as possible, nearly and hour and a half. Although the majority of the 29th Panzer Grenadier Division successfully retrograded, the 2nd Battalion received the Presidential Unit Citation award.

The 2nd Battalion then continued operations throughout the “boot” of Italy, including operations in Salerno, Acerno, Volturara, Avellino, and Mount Rotundo. On 22 January 1944, the 30th Regiment conducted amphibious operations at Anzio. This marked the 2nd Battalion's fifth amphibious operation and was also its most costly battle. On 4 June 1944, the regiment entered Rome.

On 28 August 1944, the 30th made its final amphibious landing at Cavalaire, a town in Southern France. It spent the majority of September through December 1944 fighting in the Vosges Mountains and began its assault on the Siegfried Line in Austria on 15 March 1945. On 8 May 1945, the war ended, and the 2nd Battalion began stability operations in Western Europe.



3rd Infantry
Division
Campaigns of World War II

Algeria-French Morocco
8 - 11 Nov 42
Tunisia
17 Nov 42 - 13 May 43
Sicily
9 July - 17 Aug 43
Naples-Foggia
9 Sep 43 - 21 Jan 44
Anzio
22 Jan - 24 May 44
Rome-Arno
22 Jan - 9 Sep 44
Southern France
15 Aug - 14 Sep44
Rhineland
15 Sep 44 - 21 Mar 45
Ardennes-Alsace
16 Dec 44 - 25 Jan 45
Central Europe
22 Mar - 11 May 45


Algeria-French Morocco
8 to 11 November 1942

Events bringing the United States Army to North Africa had begun more than a year before the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. For both the Axis and the Allies, the Mediterranean Sea area was one of uncertain priority. On the Axis side, the location of Italy made obvious Rome’s interest in the region. But the stronger German partner pursued interests hundreds of miles north. A similar division of emphasis characterized the Allies. To the British the Mediterranean Sea was the vital link between the home islands and long-held Asian possessions as well as Middle Eastern oil fields. To the Americans, however, the area had never been one of vital national interest and was not seen as the best route to Berlin. But the fall of France in June 1940 had also brought a new dimension to the region. The surrender of Paris left 120,000 French troops in West and North Africa and much of the French fleet in Atlantic and Mediterranean ports. Both the Axis and Allies saw overseas French forces as the decisive advantage that would allow them to achieve their contradictory objectives in the Mediterranean.


Tunisia
17 November 1942 - 13 May 1943

Victory at Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers gave the United States Army and its British ally solid toeholds in the western Mediterranean Theater of Operations. But it offered no guarantee of easy access to Italy or southern Europe, or even to the eastern end of the Mediterranean, where the British desperately needed assistance to secure Egypt and strategic resources in the Near East. The sudden entrance of American forces during 8-11 November 1942 created an awkward deployment in which two pairs of opposing armies fought in North Africa, one in Tunisia, the other in Libya. Neither Axis nor Allies found any satisfaction in the situation; much fighting remained before either adversary could consider North Africa secure.

If American commanders and troops thought their brief combat experience in French Morocco and Algeria in November 1942 was adequate preparation to face hardened Axis units in a lengthy campaign, the fighting in Tunisia brought about a harsh reappraisal. With few exceptions, French units in North Africa had been more intent on upholding national honor than inflicting casualties and damage; those that offered determined resistance were at a marked disadvantage in terms of weapons, equipment, supplies, and numbers. In Tunisia, however, American soldiers found themselves faced with well-trained, battle-tested units skillfully using the most advanced weapons and innovative combined arms tactics repeatedly to frustrate Allied plans. The result was painful to Army units involved and a shock to the American public: five months of almost continuous setbacks with commensurably high casualties.


Sicily Campaign
9 July to 17 August 1943

On the night of 9-10 July 1943, an Allied armada of 2,590 vessels launched one of the largest combined operations of World War II—the invasion of Sicily. Over the next thirty-eight days, half a million Allied soldiers, sailors, and airmen grappled with their German and Italian counterparts for control of this rocky outwork of Hitler’s “Fortress Europe.” When the struggle was over, Sicily became the first piece of the Axis homeland to fall to Allied forces during World War II. More important, it served as both a base for the invasion of Italy and as a training ground for many of the officers and enlisted men who eleven months later landed on the beaches of Normandy.


Naples-Foggia
9 September 1943 - 21 January 1944

The Allied goals, established before the invasion of Italy, were to gain control of the Mediterranean, keep pressure on the Germans while building for the cross-Channel attack, and force Italy to withdraw from the war. All agreed that bases in Italy would provide support for the air war against German sources of supply in the Balkans and the German industrial heartland itself. These sound strategic goals were valid in 1943 and have stood the test of time. By late August, the Italian government had decided to withdraw from the war and break relations with Germany. The fall of Sicily had enhanced Allied control of the Mediterranean but had not assured it. Prior to the invasion of Italy, therefore, the Allied goals were far from being totally satisfied, and an eager world watched as the Allies launched first Operation BAYTOWN and then Operation AVALANCHE to invade the European continent.


Anzio
22 January - 24 May 1944

The four months of this campaign would see some of the most savage fighting of World War II.

Following the successful Allied landings at Calabria, Taranto, and Salerno in early September 1943 and the unconditional surrender of Italy that same month, German forces had quickly disarmed their former allies and begun a slow, fighting withdrawal to the north. Defending two hastily prepared, fortified belts stretching from coast to coast, the Germans significantly slowed the Allied advance before settling into the Gustav Line, a third, more formidable and sophisticated defensive belt of interlocking positions on the high ground along the peninsula’s narrowest point.

During the four months of the Anzio Campaign the Allied VI Corps suffered over 29,200 combat casualties (4,400 killed, 18,000 wounded, 6,800 prisoners or missing) and 37,000 noncombat casualties. Two-thirds of these losses, amounting to 17 percent of VI Corps’ effective strength, were inflicted between the initial landings and the end of the German counteroffensive on 4 March. Of the combat casualties, 16,200 were Americans (2,800 killed, 11,000 wounded, 2,400 prisoners or missing) as were 26,000 of the Allied noncombat casualties. German combat losses, suffered wholly by the Fourteenth Army, were estimated at 27,500 (5,500 killed, 17,500 wounded, and 4,500 prisoners or missing), figures very similar to Allied losses.

The Anzio Campaign continues to be controversial, just as it was during its planning and implementation stages. The operation, according to U.S. Army Center of Military History historian Clayton D. Laurie, clearly failed in its immediate objectives of outflanking the Gustav Line, restoring mobility to the Italian campaign, and speeding the capture of Rome.

Yet the campaign did accomplish several goals. The presence of a significant Allied force behind the German main line of resistance, uncomfortably close to Rome, represented a constant threat. The Germans could not ignore Anzio and were forced into a response, thereby surrendering the initiative in Italy to the Allies. The 135,000 troops of the Fourteenth Army surrounding Anzio could not be moved elsewhere, nor could they be used to make the already formidable Gustav Line virtually impregnable.


Rome - Arno
22 January - 9 September 1944

The Allied operations in Italy between January and September 1944 were essentially an infantryman’s war where the outcome was decided by countless bitterly fought small unit actions waged over some of Europe’s most difficult terrain under some of the worst weather conditions found anywhere during World War II.


Southern France
15 August - 14 September 1944

The Allied invasion of southern France in the late summer of 1944, an operation first code-named ANVIL and later DRAGOON, marked the beginning of one of the most successful but controversial campaigns of World War II. However, because it fell both geographically and chronologically between two much larger Allied efforts in northern France and Italy, both its conduct and its contributions have been largely ignored. Planned originally as a simultaneous complement to OVERLORD, the cross-Channel attack on Normandy, ANVIL actually took place over two months later, on 15 August 1944, making it appear almost an afterthought to the main Allied offensive in northern Europe. Yet the success of ANVIL and the ensuing capture of the great southern French ports of Toulon and Marseille, together with the subsequent drive north up the Rhone River valley to Lyon and Dijon, were ultimately to provide critical support to the Normandy-based armies finally moving east toward the German border


Rhineland
15 September 1944 - 21 March 1945

The Rhineland Campaign, although costly for the Allies, had clearly been ruinous for the Germans. The Germans suffered some 300,000 casualties and lost vast amounts of irreplaceable equipment. Hitler, having demanded the defense of all of the German homeland, enabled the Allies to destroy the Wehrmacht in the West between the Siegfried Line and the Rhine River. Now, the Third Reich lay virtually prostrate before Eisenhower’s massed armies.


Ardennes - Alsace Campaign
16 December 1944 - 25 January 1945

In August 1944, while his armies were being destroyed in Normandy, Hitler secretly put in motion actions to build a large reserve force, forbidding its use to bolster Germany’s beleaguered defenses. To provide the needed manpower, he trimmed existing military forces and conscripted youths, the unfit, and old men previously untouched for military service during World War II.

In September Hitler named the port of Antwerp, Belgium, as the objective. Selecting the Eifel region as a staging area, Hitler intended to mass twenty-five divisions for an attack through the thinly held Ardennes Forest area of southern Belgium and Luxembourg. Once the Meuse River was reached and crossed, these forces would swing northwest some 60 miles to envelop the port of Antwerp. The maneuver was designed to sever the already stretched Allied supply lines in the north and to encircle and destroy a third of the Allies’ ground forces. If successful, Hitler believed that the offensive could smash the Allied coalition, or at least greatly cripple its ground combat capabilities, leaving him free to focus on the Russians at his back door.


Central Europe Campaign
22 March - 11 May 1945
By the beginning of the Central Europe Campaign of World War II, Allied victory in Europe was inevitable. Having gambled his future ability to defend Germany on the Ardennes offensive and lost, Hitler had no real strength left to stop the powerful Allied armies. Yet Hitler forced the Allies to fight, often bitterly, for final victory. Even when the hopelessness of the German situation became obvious to his most loyal subordinates, Hitler refused to admit defeat. Only when Soviet artillery was falling around his Berlin headquarters bunker did the German Fuehrer begin to perceive the final outcome of his megalomaniacal crusade.


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